Monday, June 29, 2020
Introduction Currently many companies have to face the challenge of competing with steadily increased competition in their industries. This high amount of competition often leads to a high cost and price pressure which usually results in low margins for the companies. These markets are called the red oceans. One possibility to break out of these red oceans and to increase the margins for the company can be handled by creating a Blue Ocean. Such a Blue Ocean is a market space where the competition is irrelevant. Aim The aim of this paper is to explain how to create such a Blue Ocean and to discuss the degree of novelty of the Blue Ocean strategy. On the one hand this will be done by explaining the belonging theory. On the other hand two cases of innovative companies will be described and analyzed on basis of the Blue Ocean strategy. Blue Ocean Strategy Concept The market set is divided into two categories which are called oceans: Blue Oceans and red oceans. Red oceans are the known market space as it exists today, with all the various industries. Competitive rules are defined and barriers are clear and accepted. Competition exists among players to gain a bigger share; the more players are on the market, the fewer prospects for profit and growth is existent. Cutthroat competition turns the red ocean bloody.Ã  Blue Oceans on the other hand represent the opposite they are the unknown market space with industries that are not existent today. Demand is not created by competitive rivalry, because the rules of the game are yet to be set. There is substantial opportunity for profitable growth because of the deep potential of market space that is not yet explored.Ã  To be successful in economic performance most companies are laying the focus on competitive strategies, plenty of enthusiasm is spend on analyzing and outperformin g rivals. Using the vocabulary of the authors their focus is on red ocean strategies. In the future this will not be enough to survive; in addition to swim in a red ocean companies need to create Blue Oceans.Ã Ã The following image illustrates the major differences between red and Blue Oceans. Image 1: Comparison of Red Ocean with Blue Ocean strategyÃ  Value Innovation The basis of the Blue Ocean Strategy is called Value Innovation. Competition is made irrelevant by creating value for both buyers and the company. Buyer value is created by the benefit and price that the company offers to the consumer; value to the company is created from the price and its cost structure therefore only if those two variables are aligned the strategy works. The innovation of a product/ service must create value for the market and eliminate features that are not valued by the current market. New and uncontested market space is made accessible by simultaneously differentiate and reducing costs. This strategy is contrary to common management strategies which propose that companies can either create value to customers at higher costs or create reasonable value at lower costs.Ã Ã According to the authors Value Innovation is a strategy that embraces the entire system of a companys activities.Ã Ã Image 2 illustrates Value Innovation. Image 2: Value Innova tionÃ  Analytical tools and framework There are three basic tools that will help companies to build a Blue Ocean Strategy. The strategy canvas The strategy canvas is a tool that helps to build a Blue Ocean Strategy. It highlights the current situation in the known market space and shows the offering level that buyers receive across several key competing factors. By illustrating these factors in a simple matrix a graphic description in form of a value curve is visible. This value curve shows a companys relative performance within its industrys factors of competition.Ã Ã By illustrating the current situation of an industry the strategic focus can be shifted away from current competition to alternatives and noncustomers, a redefinition of the industry can be constructed.Ã Ã Image 3 illustrates a strategy canvas with an example of an Airline. Image 3: Strategy CanvasÃ  The four actions framework This tool uses four key questions to lead to a new value curve: Which of the factors that the industry takes for granted should be eliminated? Which factors should be reduced well below the industrys standard? Which factors should be raised well above the industrys standard? Which factors should be created that the industry has never offered?Ã  The first two questions give an insight in how to reduce the cost structure in comparison to other players in the industry. Question 3 and 4 give insight into how to lift buyer value and create new demand.Ã  The eliminate-reduce-raise-create-grid This tool is supplementary to the four actions framework. It gives companies the possibility to act on all four questions answered before to create new value. The four factors of what to eliminate, reduce, raise and create are put in a matrix and by that scrutinize every factor the industry competes on.Ã  Formulating Blue Oceans strategies Reconstruct market boundaries In order to break away from the competition the first principle is to reconstruct market boundaries. The challenge is to find possibilities of Blue Ocean opportunities. During performing research across various industry sectors the authors found a basic approach to remaking market boundaries, the six path framework.Ã Ã This framework is applicable in all kinds of industries and all are based on looking at data from a new perspective. These are the six paths: Path 1: Look across alternative industries Path 2: Look across strategic groups within industries Path 3: Look across the chain of buyers Path 4: Look across complimentary product and service offerings Path 5: Look across functional or emotional appeal to buyers Path 6: Look across timeÃ  By analyzing each of the single paths companies will be able to get an insight into how to open up Blue Oceans by rebuilding market realities and leave behind conventional boundaries of competition.Ã  Focus on the big pictures, not the numbers The approach to the strategic planning process is based on drawing a strategy canvas, as it is explained in the section of analytical tools and framework of this document. A structured process for developing a strategy canvas has been developed, which is called the Visualizing Strategy.Ã Ã As the name implies, this process uses visual stimulation with the purpose to unlock peoples creativity. The main focus here is laid on the big picture rather than on defined numbers and operational details.Ã  Reach beyond existing demand To achieve a maximization of the size of the Blue Ocean you are creating the focus should be laid on two things: The analysis of non-customers and finding out strong similarities of what buyers value.Ã Ã This is a reversed approach to common strategies, where the focus is on customers and customer differences. The three tiers of non customers The challenge is to find out who the non-customers are and get a deep understanding of them. The authors describe three tiers of non-customers that eventually can be transformed into customers. The first tier of non-customers is closest to your market and would stay and increase their frequency of purchases if a leap in value would be offered to them. These non-customers also referred to as soon-to-be.Ã Ã The second tier of non-customers is further away from your market and aware of offerings in it but has consciously voted against them. These non-customers are also referred to as refusing.Ã Ã The third tier of non-customers is farthest from your market and has never considered its offerings as an option. These non customers are also referred to as unexplored.Ã  By analyzing each of the three tiers an understanding of the non-customers can be developed to attract them into your market and expand your Blue Ocean.Ã  Get the strategic sequence right The fourth principle of Blue Ocean Strategy focuses on the challenge to build a sustainable business model that will make profit on your Blue Ocean idea. The idea here is to use sequences and key criteria within a sequence to reduce business model risk.Ã Ã Each sequence has a key question that has to be asked. If answered with no the sequence has to be reshaped. If answered with yes one can move on to the next sequence. The four sequences are: Buyer utility: Is there exceptional buyer utility in your business idea? Price: Is your price easy accessible to the mass of buyers? Cost: Can you attain your cost target to profit at your strategic price? Adoption: What are the adoption hurdles in actualizing your business idea? Are you addressing them up front?Ã  With this sequencing as a starting point further analyzing of strategic pricing, target costing and finally the profit model is developed.Ã  Executing Blue Ocean Strategy Overcome key organizational hurdles The challenge to execute the strategy of Blue Oceans is significant, since there are changes made from the conventional way of doing things. The authors present four common hurdles in the execution: The cognitive-, political-, motivational- and resource hurdle. Dealing with those challenges in form of hurdles with tipping point leadership is the key to make Blue Ocean Strategy happen in action.Ã  Build execution into strategy The sixth principle of the Blue Ocean Strategy is about building commitment and trust into the strategy from the start. The focus is laid on a fair process as a key variable that distinguishes successful Blue Ocean Strategy moves from those that failed.Ã  Case analysis In this section, we intend to describe and analize two cases of innovative companies (Virgin Galactic and Petrobras) based on the Blue Ocean theory. Virgin Galactic Description of Virgin Galactic Virgin Galactic is a company which belongs to the Virgin Group. This group was founded 1970 by Sir Richard Branson and is one of the leading brand venture capital organizations of the world. The group has created more than 300 branded companies in a variety of different industries, employs around 50,000 people and generated revenue of approx. US$ 18 billion in the year 2009.Ã Ã Based on them the success of this group derives from the power of the Virgin name, Richard Bransons personal reputation; our unrivalled network of friends, contacts and partners; the Virgin management style; the way talent is empowered to flourish within the group.Ã  The Virgin Galactic company has the aim of making private space travel available to everyone by creating the worlds first commercial spaceline.Ã Ã Virgin Galactic will create, own and operate spaceships, the SpaceShipTwo. To achieve this goal the Virgin Group uses it experiences in aviation, adventure and luxury travel c ombining with the technology developed by Burt Rutan. The company was founded in the year 2004 and is located in New Mexico. The SpaceShipOne became the first private spaceship with high altitude-flights in the year 2004. The successor of this technology, the SpaceShipTwo, has seats for two pilots and six passengers. Every passenger has to pay US$200.000 with a deposit ofUS$20,000. At the moment 340 passengers have registered for this service.Ã Ã So far 450 people have ever been to space, the goal of Virgin Galactic is to take 1,000 people to space within the first year of commercial operation.Ã Ã The first commercial flight shall start in the year 2012.Ã  The mothership of the SpaceShipTwo, the WhiteKnightTwo, will take the SpaceShipTwo to a height of about 16km and then release it. At that point the rockets of the SpaceShipTwo will boost and bring it to a height of about 100km.Ã Ã There it will fly for about five minutes in which the passenge rs have a magnificent view at the earth and can enjoy weightlessness. Afterwards the space ship will decrease the altitude and land at its base in New Texas. The first flying tests of the WhiteKnightTwo were executed successfully and the SpaceShipTwo completed the first manned glide flight in October 2010.Ã  At current stage the company Blue Origin which is based close to Seattle is also working on a private space ship.Ã  Analysis of Virgin Galactic The analysis will start by discussing the Value Innovation of Virgin Galactic. So far tourism in space was available for seven specific persons who paid in average US$ 25 million for staying about 14 days at the ISS.Ã Ã The clear buyer benefit of Virgin Galactic is to make this tourism available for nearly everybody who can afford paying the US$200,000 which is less than 1% of the price so far. Moreover, these space trips also add value to Virgin Galactic as it will earn US$200,000 for every passenger having already 340 on the waiting list. Virgin Galactic clearly succeeded in creating a Value Innovation. In the following the strategy canvas for Virgin Galactic will be developed to see the value curve in comparison to its competitor the stay at the ISS.Ã  As principal factors the following was defined: price, safety, request for personal attributes and easy preparation for the trip.Ã Ã As seen in image one the Virgin Galactic company enables a much mo re comfortable and convenient stay as the previous tourism on the ISS. This is also based on the lower requirements a person has to fulfill to be able to execute this tourism and the lower time-investment. Image 4: Strategy Canvas of Virgin GalacticÃ  Considering the four action framework Virgin Galactic reduced the costs by eliminated the factors that a stay in space has to be combined with a long duration and cost-intensive stay at the ISS and with cost-intensive rocket starts. Furthermore, they created the factor that nearly everybody would be able (from physical requirementsÃ Ã ) to go to space with a low time-investment and a comparably low amount of money. They increased the convenience of space-tourisms to a very high extent. In conclusion, they managed to dramatically reduce the costs while increasing the perceived value of the passengers which are interested in some minutes of weightlessness and seeing the earth from the space. Virgin Galactic also concentrated on the so called non-customers as the total number of customers was seven so far. They identified the implicit wish of most people to go to space once. Organizational hurdles The cognitive hurdle cannot be applied as Virgin Galactic did not start in a red ocean but directly entered the Blue Ocean with the start of the company. The hurdle resources will probably be not a big burden as the first flying tests went successful, customers on the waiting list already paid close to US$7 million as deposit and Sheikh Mansour invested US$280 million in this business.Ã Ã Furthermore, the Virgin Group and the state of New Mexico are supporting this business. The motivation of the employees and managers is high which is also pushed by Richard Branson personal interest in the success of this company.Ã Ã The political hurdle could be implemented by making new laws for required safety standards. But already in 2004 the US congress passed a law which allows passengers to fly into space with the understanding that these vehicles might not be as safe as regular airplanes. Furthermore, the governor of New Mexico supports this companyÃ Ã and the Virg in group has a high political power. In conclusion all the hurdles were passed successfully by Virgin Gallactic. Build execution into strategy From the beginning Richard Branson declared the vision of this company to make private space travel year 2004. Conclusion In final conclusion, Virgin Galactic entered a Blue Ocean from the beginning. It decreased the costs and made space travel available to everyone by creating the worlds first commercial spaceline. Virgin Galactic works towards this clear vision with having the first commercial flights very likely eight years after its foundation in the previous tourism in space and increased the value of it by leveraging especially the convenience for the customers. Moreover, it went beyond known customer space by offering this service for less than 1% of the costs so far. It managed the organizational hurdles and created a strong vision from the start. Although other companies as e.g. Blue Origin try to create space tourisms this ocean is deep blue so far for Virgin Galactic. Petrobras Description of Petrobras Petrobras was established on October 3, 1953 by the president of Brazil, GetÃ ºlio Vargas, to undertake oil sector activities in the country. In the early 1970s, the members of the Organization of the Oil Exporting Countries (OPEC) rose the international prices substantially, triggering the so-called Oil Shock. As a result, the market was troubled and marked by uncertainty. In order to overcome the difficulties, the Brazilian government adopted economic measures in order to overcome the supply of oil. Some examples of these measures were the encouragement for use of ethanol as automotive fuel and prioritizing offshore exploration and production. With the measures, the government intended to reduce the dependency on importing a very expensive product and to create an industry to create jobs and exports. These tasks where given to PetrÃ ³leo Brasileiro (Petrobras) for being executed.Ã  Producing ethanol for powering the nation 1975 marks the beginning of the production of Ethanol by Petrobras in Brazil aiming to drive the large-scale substitution of oil based vehicular fuels for biofuels. Substituting gasoline for ethanol (produced from sugarcane and manioc) led to 10 million fewer gasoline fuel cars running in Brazil, reducing the countrys dependence on imported oil.Ã  Today Brazil is recognized as the world leader in the production of ethanol for industrial purposes, based on the most advanced agricultural technology for sugarcane cultivation in the world and to the amount of arable land available in the country. In 2010, the Brazilian ethanol produced by Petrobras was designated as one of the most advanced biofuels due to the 61% reduction of green house gas emissions.Ã  Pioneering in deep waters In 1984 the company discovered one of the biggest reserve in deep water ever registered in the world. The Albacora field was discovered; proving the existence of giant fields nestled at great depth in Brazil. This marked the beginning in deepwater exploration for the company. By 1986 the company, which until then purchased technology, was faced with the challenge of producing oil at a depth of 400 meters. After surveying the market and finding out there was no technology available for this depth, the company decided to invest in developing new technologies. This was an extremely ambitious project, since, at the time, Petrobras had been exploring at depths of 150 meters and had plans for 1000 meters by 1990. This project turned out to be a great success and the company is currently the global leader in this area. By 2005, Petrobras sets the record of drilling depth with a sloped that reached 6915 meters beyond the bottom of the sea.Ã  Petrobras achieves self sufficiency In 2006 Brazil became a self-sufficient country in oil and gas production. With an average of 1.9 million barrels per day, Brazil went on to exporting more oil and oil products than it imported. It was like a dream came true, only possible because of the technological efforts and dedication of the employees. Since this point, Petrobras is the most profitable company in the Brazilian economy, being recognized as the eighth biggest oil exploring company in the world.Ã  In the upcoming years, Petrobras intends to invest in using and developing new renewable energy sources. The portfolio of new projects includes wind, solar and water energy sources and fuel hydrogen. The intention is to reduce even more the dependency on oil, delivering the necessary energy sources to Brazil in order to sustain the intended growth of the upcoming years. Analysis of Petrobas Petrobras success can be summed up in one word and that word is innovation. This company faced the challenge of turning one of the biggest countries in the Americas from a big consumer of imported oil to self sufficient in oil and gas production. This strategy was based on focusing on the big picture (producing its own oil and become an exporter of petroleum) rather than finding a temporary solution for importing oil in the 70s, when the biggest crisis of oil prices occurred. Value Innovation They broke away from the competition by reconstructing market boundaries. For each challenge they faced, they were able to create and develop the necessary technology that didnt exist in the market, becoming a leader in deepwater oil drilling. They reached beyond their existing demand by having more oil available than they need for their own consumption. They also created value to the country by reducing the amount of CO2 in 61% emitted by cars and public transportation thanks to the introduction to ethanol and biodiesel. Brazil became a more efficient country thanks to the use of their natural resources for powering the nation. By mixing ethanol with oil, Petrobras has managed to increase the value for customers by creating a reduction of oil pricesÃ Ã and by guaranteeing the oil supply they reduced the dependency on foreign companies. Strategy canvas We have decided to explain the differences between the two largest producers of Ethanol in the world, Brazil and U.S.A. As we have mentioned before, Petrobras is the only company responsible for the production and distribution of ethanol in Brazil. Image 5: Stragegy Canvas PetrobasÃ  As we can see in the figure xx, Brazil is the second largest producer of Ethanol in the world (6,500 million gallons in 2009Ã Ã ) behind the United States (10,900 million gallons in 2009Ã Ã ). But, the total area used by Brazil for cultivating their sugar cane (3.6 million hectaresÃ Ã by 2006) is far less than the land used by the United States (10 million hectaresÃ Ã in 2006). This means that the productivity per hectare is superior in Brazil than in the United States. Another important thing to mention is that thanks to the mixture of Ethanol and oil in Brazil, green house gas reduction has been reduced considerably (89%Ã Ã ), increasing the valu e the company gives to their customers. Organizational hurdles The hurdles are based on the theory mentioned in the first section of this project. During the oil crisis of the 70s, the company faced the challenge of completely changing the paradigm of production. In the cognitive hurdle, we can say that the employees understood completely the need of the company and were able to transform the company. In the second hurdle resources, we can say that the company successfully understood that they needed to invest a great amount of resources in RD in order to increase the efficiency of the production of ethanol and also to raise the drilling depth for oil extraction. Motivating employees on a thirty-year-old project has been an enormous challenge for the company. They have managed to succeed by achieving small goals each year, increasing the level of satisfaction and trust towards the leadership of the company. Finally, the political hurdle was managed correctly due to the implications of the transformation project, involving the government, the management and employees of the company. Build execution into strategy As we mentioned before, the strategy was clear from the beginning: Reduce the dependency of oil and turn the country into a self-sufficient country. The facts speak for themselves, the whole company aligned in order to achieve the goal and it is an example on how to implement the Blue Ocean strategy. Conclusion So, why can the strategy of Petrobras be considered a Blue Ocean strategy? First of all they focused on creating value for the country by reducing the amount of oil imported and gaining self-sufficiency. As a consequence, they were able to reduce considerably the prices of gasoline in Brazil and the dependency of external factors to develop the country. They achieved this goal by innovating in ways to reduce consumption of oil (alternative fuels like ethanol and biodiesel) and exploit the potential the country had in its coasts, regardless the technology available at the times. In the last twenty years, Petrobras has become a key player in the success of Brazil to achieve development. The upcoming years for this company look really bright, thanks to the investment they are doing on other alternative means to produce electricity (water, solar and wind), improve the efficiency of alternative fuels and by creating the necessary technology for increasing the depth for deepwater dril ling for oil. Discussion In the following the degree of novelty of the Blue Ocean strategy and the general criticism about this theory will be discussed. Analyzing the degree of novelty in the Blue Ocean Strategy The book The Blue Ocean Strategy was first published in 2005 and according to the two authors based on more than 15 years of research in various dimensions of this business topic and 150 successful strategic moves spanning.Ã  As we read above the Blue Ocean Strategy aims at creating new demand in an uncontested market space. This is done by reducing the factors of competition and offering new value to the buyer and company itself. The question is is this really a new idea or does it just put together components existent in theory of management of radical/disruptive innovations? To be able to answer this question we first have to look at the existent theory. The origin of the disruptive innovation model is found in Christensens research and studies at Harvard which he published for the first time in 1997.Ã Ã He defines disruptive innovation as follows: An innovation that creates a new (and unexpected) market by applying a different set of values .Ã  He distinguishes between two types of disruptive innovations: Low-end disruption: Targets customers who do not need the full performance valued at the high-end of the market. New-market disruption: Targets customers who have needs that were previously unserved by existing incumbents.Ã  The performance improvement provided in the market has a different trajectory than the trajectory of performance improvement that the customer really wants. Innovators can reach those customers by offering a new set of performance value attributes that are more relevant to the target customer.Ã  Christensen originally used the word disruptive technology but changed it to disruptive innovation to set the focus of the strategy to the business model rather than on the technology.Ã Ã This means that the disruptive impact a technology has gets enabled by an innovative business model. Disruptive innovation requires a separate strategy process than regular incremental innovation. Ã  Comparing Christensens definition of disruptive innovation and the main goals of the Blue Ocean Strategy it becomes clear that there is no radical degree of novelty existent. Blue Ocean Strategy aims at creating new demand in an uncontested market spaceÃ Ã , whereas Christensen defines it by creating a new and unexpected marketÃ Ã . One can say that those two definitions have the same meaning. Blue Ocean Strategy wants to offer new value to the buyerÃ Ã , whereas Christensen talks about offering a new set of performance value that is more relevant to the target customerÃ Ã . Again, the meaning of the two definitions is exactly the same. Another similarity can be seen in both strategies aiming to focus on the business model and the strategy process: The challenge to build a sustainable business modelÃ Ã , and Value Innovation is a strategy that embraces the entire systemÃ Ã (Blue Ocean Strategy) versus Disruptive innovation requires a separate strategy process than regular incremental innovationÃ Ã (Christensen). As one can see above, the metaphor of Blue Oceans is new, but the concept is not. Christensens model of disruptive innovation was well established before the authors of Blue Ocean Strategy published their findings. But Kim and Mauborgne tried to take a different approach in their tools and frameworks they use for executing the strategy. So consequently one can say that Blue Ocean Strategy might be a good additional insight to strategies for disruptive innovation management. But it should always be kept in mind that the basic thought of the theory was existent already. General criticism On a general bases, it is difficult to find companies that have successfully accomplished to use the Blue Ocean strategyÃ Ã . It is not a proven methodology to assure success and some companies only use parts of the theory to complement their general strategyÃ Ã . Although, the Blue Ocean strategy gives a basic structure in order to develop a more innovative company. The writers of the book highlight some cases of success, but they dont explain cases in which their theory failed in order to learn from the mistakes made by the company during the execution of the strategy. This will definitely help some companies and entrepreneurs to avoid some common mistakes, improving the hypothesis that the authors are promoting. Secondly, the authors try to mold the accomplishment of some companies to their theory, creating a blur scenario in which readers can fall to believe that the Blue Ocean strategy is the key to success in a market filled with similar companies. It is also argued that the authors have not discovered some new radical strategy to increase innovation in companiesÃ Ã . We tend to believe that the authors just joined different ideas in one book, creating a compendium of stories and hypothesis to explain the success of some companies that did things in a different way. Conclusion The theory of the Blue Ocean strategy shows that it is important to create Value Innovation in order to achieve a Blue Ocean. This should be mainly done by creating value for the customer as well as for the company itself. The two case-studies of innovative companies illustrated the usage of this Value Innovation and how these companies successfully entered a Blue Ocean. Nevertheless, the discussion demonstrated that this is not a totally new concept but more a renaming and reframing of the disruptive innovation concept. Furthermore, the Blue Ocean strategy might not work for every business, as it was mainly developed using the examples of successful companies and adapting this strategy towards them.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
A Guide to Samples of Essay Requesting Foe Graduate Assistanceship The Debate Over Samples of Essay Requesting Foe Graduate Assistanceship Her very first lecture was a little shaky. Understanding my former responsibilities with respect to theory and learn to turn new theories into practice is a process I cannot wait to start. Examples can supply you with tips on how to structure your resume and what type of language to include. These examples will allow you to discover the direct links between key ideas. New Questions About Samples of Essay Requesting Foe Graduate Assistanceship In the exact same way that you could reference resume samples, the next Graduate Assistant cover letter example will let you compose a cover letter that most highlights your experience and qualifications. Still, this statement may not be solely concentrated on the applicant's research intentions. 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Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Mass media is designed to reach large audiences with technology. Its purpose is meant to give us entertainment and information we need to act as a society. Media is everywhere; there is no escaping from it. Almost every home in America has at least one TV, the internet, and a cell phone. You cannot drive down the street without seeing billboard signs. Checking out at the grocery store can be tricky if trying to avoid magazines. There are more forms of media available today then ever before; consequently, teens are exposed to a lot of information. The media is supposed to portray what is normal; therefore, it affects what society considers normal. Teens are much more impressionable then adults. What the media tells them is normal affectsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In reality the media is not showing the real picture of the diverse world we live in. According to the online recourse Common Sense Media, 74 percent of characters on TV are Caucasian, and 64 percent of video games chara cters are males. In reality most of the images teens see in the media are edited, photo shopped, or enhanced with special effects. Even though a teen may be aware of this fact, seeing the stereotyped image still has an affect on their body image. Often teens are not being educated about sex; therefore, are learning about if from porn, or other forms of media. The encouragement of sexual behavior is widely displayed in the media. Sex is being portrayed as more casual, without commitment, contraception, or consequences. Teen dramas and music videos portray the cool kids as the ones have sexual relations. The casual attitude about sex has sparked a new trend involving cell phones called Sexting. This is when a teen takes a nude photo with their mobile phone and sends it to another mobile phone. It is against the law to view and distribute child porn; because teens are minors, sexting is considered just that. Sexting is very dangerous, because teens unknowingly set themselves up for a c riminal record. The internet is becoming a very popular place to meet and make friends. MySpace and Facebook have become very popular social websites. Teens feel pressure to portray themselves in seductive ways, to be like the teensShow MoreRelatedThe Media And Body Image1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesknow that the media and body image are closely related. Particularly, how the body image advertising portrays affects our own body image. Research documented adolescents as they are more at risk for developing unhealthy attitudes toward their bodies. They are at a time where they re focused on developing their individual identities, making them susceptible to social pressure and media images. A major reason many people have a negative body image is because of the impact that the media has had on ourRead MoreMedia and Body Image1118 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe media has become a powerful source for changes in our society. There are so many factors and reasons for our society changing. Today I find most people obsessively worried about their body image. We all have a body and at one time or another, we worry about it. Women and men are both being affected by media sources such as television, advertising, magazines, music, and video games; not to mention the photo manipulation that goes along with it all. Questions can be asked; such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Is this theRead MoreMedia and Body Image729 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesEver wonder why more and more teenagers are having issues with their body image? As society grows, more and more young adults are becoming self-conscious about their bodies and how they look. Girls and boys alike are taught, though not verbally how they should look, from celebrities they see on TV to toys they used to play with and magazines they read on a daily basis. Media make being satisfied with how your body looks extremely difficult and it is getting out of hand. More and more young adultsRead MoreThe Media Of Body Image2000 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesOnce upon a time, you probably liked your body and appreciated the many things it could do, but the route to adulthood, doubts and insecurities may have crept in. The images the media exposures the society to are of thin and beautiful women and extremely muscular men. There are negative affects to what the media is showing the body image and mood states of young women and men. The mass media is designed to reach large audiences through the use of technology. From the moment nations wakes up untilRead MoreThe Impact Of Media On Body Image1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe concept of body image is influenced by external factors as culture, society norms, especially with the development of modern social media, it has grown up to be an important element in affecting the perception of body image to shape the body image. The influence of mass media may be related to the social comparison process of appearance in female and male. The ideal media body image, it is easy to compare in everyday life, and tha t will result to dissatisfaction with people s body size. On theRead MoreMedia Vs. Body Image1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages029 October 17, 2015 Media vs. the body Image Body image remains to be a very controversial topic in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, because of how easy it is to become a hate crime over a small comment on how small or big someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s body is. Today, it is unavoidable to see the look that it seems society wants us to look. Professor Susan Bordo writes the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Never Just PicturesÃ¢â¬ , describing her investigation between the media and its effects on how people view their bodies. She uses ethos, logos, andRead MoreMedia Impact On Body Image1254 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesimpact of media models on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and adolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ body image? Over recent times, the media has become a prominent part in the upbringing of young people. In particular the manner by which the media portrays body image has changed in numerous ways. Body image is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a personÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions, thoughts, and feelings about his or her bodyÃ¢â¬ by Grogan (as cited in Zaccagni, Masotti, Donati Gualdi-Russo, 2014). There is a stronger focus of what is considered to be the perfect body type andRead MoreMedia Effects On Body Image Essay1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSpecific age groups and mostly women have been studied regarding media effects on body image. These studies did not test the external stimuli created by peer groups that have an impact on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s self-idealization. This study addressed individual age groups divided by gender in order to determine how much media effects body idealization and if gender peer group opinions impact self-idealization when viewing media models. Methods The methods used in this study incorporated individuals into groupsRead MoreThe Effects Of Media On Body Image1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Media has developed to become omnipresent in the day to day lives of the westernized societies. The media is considered a gigantic umbrella that houses a plethora of different outlets underneath it such as television, music videos, magazines, commercials, video games and social media. In this paper, the effects of media and various media types are examined to understand their potential outcomes. Focusing on how and if media affects body image in girls and women, the themes of dieting awarenessRead MoreMedia Effects Body Image1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesApril 6, 2014 The Effects of Mass Media on African American Women Body Images Over the past 10 years, mass media and the access to social networks has evolved substantially causing the effects of negative self-image and what is considered beautiful. Body image expectations for both African-American male and female share the battles of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, yet African American women body images come with a stricter and more unhealthy stigma; growth of social media such as Facebook, Instagram and
Friday, May 15, 2020
Utilitarian Theory and Human Rights Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the Ã¢â¬Å"sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or painÃ¢â¬ , requiring governments to make decisions based on the Ã¢â¬Å"largest sum of pleasureÃ¢â¬ (Postema, 2006). However Bentham argued that every individual in the country tells for one, no individual for more than one, meaning that the weight of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness should always remain equivalent to that of anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness regardless of personal status (Postema, 2006). Using this moral theory as a basis, Bentham asserted that the ultimate goal of government and all of morality was the advancement of public welfareÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In particular, Article 7 states that Ã¢â¬Å"all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the lawÃ¢â¬ , however the statistics provided by the NYCLU clearly suggests t hat blacks and Latinos are routinely stopped by the NYPD more than whites. Security rights as defined by Article 3 of the UHDR, are those which protect citizens from crimes against their person. Governments are expected to prohibit crimes such as murder, rape, and massacre. One could argue that laws that endorse the death penalty are a violation of security rights, especially given the fact that a fool-proof method of proving guilt exists. In addition, Article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) restricts the use of the death penalty to lethal crimes or Ã¢â¬Å"crimes with extremely grave consequencesÃ¢â¬ and the UN Human Rights Committee states Ã¢â¬Å"that the death penalty should be a quite exceptional measureÃ¢â¬ (Sangiorgio, 2011). However death sentences as recent as 2010 were imposed or carried out for offenses that did not meet the criteria specified in Article 6 of the ICCPR. In addition to limiting death sentences to offenses of the Ã¢â¬Å"most serious crimesÃ¢â¬ , the ICCPR also states that the death penalty can only be carried out Ã¢â¬Å"after a legal process which gives all possible safeguards to ensure a fair trialÃ¢â¬ (Sangiorgio, 2011), however all too often a Ã¢â¬Å"fair trialÃ¢â¬ is subject to many factors including the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s socioeconomicShow MoreRelatedMoral Philosophy And Its Strength And Weaknesses1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA system of m oral principles is a definition of ethics in a culture or a group. Principles or rules of right conduct or the distinction between right and wrong are one definition of moral. In this essay, I will search for my principles and how I ought to live my life. What do I believe in and how do I apply this in my duty as a human being, as a father, husband and a military officer. In other words, I will search for my moral philosophy. Furthermore, I will explain my moral philosophy and itsRead MoreThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights Violation1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDeclaration of Human Rights states that Ã¢â¬Å"No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishmentÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Byrne, 2003, pg. 400). This human rights violation is also discussed in Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (408). While torture is discussed in many covenants and declarations as morally and legally wrong, many still argue that torture can be justified in certain situations. There are many answers and theories that can be appliedRead MoreThe Ethical Argument For Veganism1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesusing Utilitarianism defined by John Stuart Mill, and Deontological ethics according to Immanuel Kant. Through the use of these theories, I will justify the moral worth and legitimacy of the animal welfare d ebate that is often used to promote a cruelty-free and vegan lifestyle by analyzing questions of animal sentience, the worth of an animalÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness, and the right humanity supposedly has to the lives of other living creatures. Utilitarianism and Deontological ethics will provide two philosophicalRead MoreUtilitarianism V. Pojman s No Rest And Justice Essay1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUtilitarianism is the concept that Ã¢â¬Å"holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.Ã¢â¬ In summation, the consequentialist theory states, in reference to Dr. Peetush, that morally Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ actions are those that promote Ã¢â¬Å"the greatest good for the greatest number of people.Ã¢â¬ For instance, if a utilitarian were faced with the dilemma of having to kill an innocent for the welfare of 100 other innocents, he would justifyRead MoreCan Utilitarianism Be Defended Against The Injustice Ob jection?1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCan Utilitarianism be defended against the Injustice Objection? Ã In this essay, I will argue that utilitarianism cannot be defended against the injustice objection. Utilitarians may be able to reply to the injustice objection in some cases by invoking one of two replies, the Ã¢â¬ËLong term consequencesÃ¢â¬â¢ reply, in which utilitarians will avoid unjust actions that increase short-term utility because in the long-term they will not lead to the greatest good. The other reply that may help utilitarianismRead MoreIs Feminism a Harmful Ideology Essay1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesinfringeÃ¢â¬ ¦) which express value judgements. These statements can not be supported by empirical evidence. In other words, they are not subject to verification by running experiments, or through observation. Second, these answers define standards of human conduct, which apply equally to everyone (as opposed to, for example, men under the age of 21 who live in Tanzania). Lastly, these judgements for the most part are, as the course guide vaguely puts it, not laid down by authoritative bodies (pg.1-3)Read MoreEthical Theories Supporting Different Moral Perspectives Of Human Actions871 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere are numerous ethical theories supporting different moral perspectives of human actions. The various theories differ according to the way in which they require people to act, and in their fundamental arguments. Because of different perspectives and philosophical views, no ethical theory can be said to be superior to the other. The paper that follows describes and defends the ethical theory of utilitarianism. Reasons why Utilitarianism is the Correct Ethical Theory i. It reinforces rationalityRead MoreThe Theory of Classical Utilitarialism Essay1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis essay, I will talk about the theory of classical utilitarianism. My objection will be about how classical utilitarianism ignores justice and moral rights, and I will argue how this can undermine the theory. I will then discuss how this theory cannot be saved from this objection. Classical utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism where actions are judged only by the consequences of the action (act based). According to Hodgson (1967), the act is only right if it was to have the best consequencesRead MoreA Consequentialist Action Is The Moral Worth Of An Act891 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages A consequentialist action is a utilitarian theory. The utilitarian theory is a choice between two acts that can maximize utility for the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism is the moral worth of an act. Utilitarian takes the right proportion of utilities to promote happiness and prevent pain. Utilities is the expressed quality of happiness or satisfaction one gets from something (Mossier, 2013). Happiness comes in many levels of preference. HoweverRead MoreUtilitarianism : The And Influential Moral Theories890 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUtilitarianism is one of the most renowned and influential moral theories. The basis of act utilitarianism is maximizing utility, that is, doing the things that maximize happiness over suffering. Utilitarians reject moral codes that are based on customs or traditions given by leaders or supernatural deities because they judge the truth or justifiability of morality as its positive contribution to all beings. Both act utilitarians and rule utilitarians concur that the overall aim in determining the morality
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Chapter 1 Psy What is Psychology? After reading this chapter, you would be able to Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ understand the nature and role of psychology in understanding mind and behaviour, state the growth of the discipline, know the different fields of psychology, its relationship with other disciplines, and professions, and appreciate the value of psychology in daily life to help you understand yourself and others better. Contents Introduction What is Psychology? Psychology as a Discipline Psychology as a Natural Science Psychology as a Social Science Understanding Mind and Behaviour Popular Notions about the Discipline of Psychology Evolution of Psychology Some Interesting Landmarks in the Evolution of Modern Psychology (Box 1.1) Development ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The range of phenomena it studies, some of which we mentioned above, are spread over several levels, viz. individual, dyadic (two person) group, and organisational. They also have biological as well as social bases. Naturally, therefore, the methods required to study them also vary greatly depending on the phenomenon one wants to study. A discipline is defined both in terms of what it studies and how it studies. In fact, more in terms of how or method/s it uses. Keeping this in view, psychology is defined formally as a science which studies mental processes, experiences and behaviour in different contexts. In doing so, it uses methods of biological and social sciences to obtain data systematically. It makes sense of these data so that they can be organised as knowledge. Let us try to understand the three terms used in the definition, namely, mental processes, experience, and behaviour. When we say experiences are internal to the experiencing person, we refer to states of consciousness or awareness or mental processes. We use our mental processes when we think or try to solve a problem, to know or remember something. One level at which these mental processes are reflected is the brain activity. As we think or solve a mathematical problem, o ur brain activities can be observed using different techniques of brain imaging. However, we cannot say that brain activities and mental processes are the same, although they are interdependent. Mental
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been a topic of debate for a long time. The most heated topic of debate is if the novel is racist and if it should then be included in school curriculum whether. Many believe this book should be taken out of school curriculum for being racist. Huckleberry FInn should be taught in schools because of its satire, views on slavery and morals, and depiction of antebellum America. Huck Finn still remains a classic Twain s use of satire is one of the many things that makes this book a classic. By pointing out human weakness Twain helps show flaws in society and how society can be wrong. This book serves as a lesson about forming your own opinions and in HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s cause it is about breaking from societyÃ¢â¬â¢s morals and deciding that slavery isnÃ¢â¬â¢t wrong. Huck s experiences with Jim, helping him escape slavery illustrate this. Huck sees how people can be cruel even when they claim to be civilized. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ Twain s satirical attack on slavery, hypocrisy, and prejudice in antebellum America compels readers to look not only at slavery and racism, but also at the whole tradition of American democracyÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ (PBS). Twain satirises the people Jim and Huck meet and the society they are in. Huck and Jim must oppose the Ã¢â¬Å"respectableÃ¢â¬ people they meet along the Mississippi, Miss Watson, Pap, the Grangerfords and Shepherdsons, and the Duke and King(Nichols 13) because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree there ideas and they would take Jim back into slavery. How Miss Watson can be aShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn 1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMicaela Soriano AP Lit Period 2 Mr. Etheridge Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Cheat Sheet Title: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Author: Mark Twain Publication: December 10, 1884 Setting and Time period: The setting throughout the story mainly takes place along areas by the Mississippi River, and as stated in the book, Ã¢â¬Å"Forty to Fifty Years agoÃ¢â¬ . Characters: Huckleberry Finn - The protagonist and narrator of the novel. Huck is the thirteen-year-old son of the local drunk of St. Petersburg, MissouriRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn 1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLola Parsapour Mr. Ruddy AP Lang 3 September 2015 The Value in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, written by Mark Twain, developed into one of the most controversial books in America. The basis of this controversy can be summarized briefly for it was the use of racial slur and issues of slavery that caused tension in our society. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was banned for the first time one month after its publication. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Not suitable for trashÃ¢â¬ was theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn 923 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrambling of thought, a major piece of literary confusion plaguing my mind something most fierce that I cannot even lay my head down to rest peacefully lest this situation be resolved. As of this moment, the majority of my latest novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is nearing its completion, settling at the end of its forty-second chapter, only one more concluding verbose passage revolving around in the air within my mind. While most would be elated and at peace for achieving somethi ng so grand-Read MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare slaves. In the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, Huck and Jim travel down the Mississippi river, and encounter a lot of the aspects of the antebellum south. Because of the society Huck has grown up in, he often overlooks his traveling companion, Jim. Throughout the story, Twain creates a division, that widens as the story evolves, between how Huck views Jim and how the reader views Jim as a person. This theme happens in almost every part of the book and it is very clearRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain Essay1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnotes. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget to cite! (1-3 sentences) Ã¢â¬â William Shakespeare once said, Ã¢â¬Å"God has given you one face, and you make yourself anotherÃ¢â¬ . TAG (Title, author, genre): The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain, satire full of adventure Context/Background: The story follows a teenager boy as he sets off on an adventure with Jim, a runaway slave. Together, they overcome a variety of obstacles and experience what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to go off in the real world. Thesis: Throughout the novel, Mark TwainRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain Essay2138 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesName- Marlene Hight Date-10/7/16 Period-4 MAJOR WORKS DATA SHEET Advanced Placement English Language and Composition Title: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Author: Mark Twain Date of Publication: 1999 Genre: Satire Explain what makes this work an example of this genre. Explain what makes this work an example of this genre. Satire means to use irony, humor or exaggeration to show the context of society.I think that Twain uses Satire to compare the irony of life back then as it isRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1917 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesStereotype in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Civilization evolves over time, trading old ideas for new ones. Society grows in intellect and innovation. Though, despite the heights that humanity has soared, impurity still remains. Regardless of the best efforts, millennia of oppression have ingrained the tendency to hate into the psyche of man, despite centuries of reform. Racism continues to propagate every corner of the globe. Yet, in his modern American novel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark TwainRead MoreAnalysis Of The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn 1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Analysis of an Important Character Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a story about growing up, facing the world, and fighting for whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right. Huckleberry Finn matures greatly throughout the book, and Tom Sawyer plays an important role in showing this change. His character allows the reader to see HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s increase in maturity throughout the story. Tom is the constant, his immaturity not changing from the beginning to the end of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, while Huck is the changing variableRead MoreHuckleberry Finn and the use of Satire Essay1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Huck Finn and the use of Satire Mark Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been controversial ever since its release in 1884. It has been called everything from the root of modern American literature to a piece of racist trash. Many scholars have argued about Huck Finn being prejudiced. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain uses satire to mock many different aspects of the modern world. Despite the fact that many critics have accused Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s novel of promoting racismRead Morehuck finn introduction7490 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pages Huckleberry FinnÃ¢â¬â¢s Road to Maturation Huck states to Judge Thatcher Please take it, and dont ask me nothingÃ¢â¬âthen I wont have to tell no liesÃ¢â¬ (16). That quote is said by Huck to Judge Thatcher when Huck finds his pap is in town and pap will try to take his money. The Maturation of Huckleberry Finn is important because its about Huck making the right decisions to help him and Jim to freedom. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, begins with Huck introducing himself. He is wild and
Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the difference between a military revolution and a revolution in military affairs (RMA)? Why is the difference important? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Are we currently experiencing a military revolution, an RMA, or something else? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the Western way of war? What are its key elements and how are they different from warfare practiced by the rest of the world? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is an RMA defined by technology or something else? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Are RMAs something we can plan and control? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What does history tell us about the nature of revolutionary developments in warfare? Ã¢â¬ ¢ And finally, so what? What does this mean to me? Care must be taken to ensure that we remember that each time has its own unique context and that the contingency of events is always in play. Things really can go the other way, nothing is pre-determined. Military history contributions: (Luvaas) Ã¢â¬ ¢ History offers a vicarious experience. Students of military history can learn from mistakes and successes of others. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Luvaas notes that history offers ways to capitalize on what others before him (specifically Napoleon) had experienced. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Two other areas in which history can offer primary instruction are teaching how Soldiers react to fear and how Soldiers are motivated. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Since fear typically does not show in training situations, experience remains the best demonstration of how individuals and units react under its unique stress. Soldiers learn from history by: (luvaas) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identifying with Soldiers and events Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understanding their problems Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accepting past experience on its own terms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Asking pertinent questions What does Luvaas say are the pitfalls or fallacies of studying military history? Select all that apply. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Luvaas warns: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Although analysis of military history is the primary engine of theory and doctrine, their interrelationship has fallacies. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Perhaps the greatest disservice to history and its lessons comes from its frequent association with a given set of military principles or doctrine. Ã¢â¬ ¢ History can illustrate principles or doctrine, but cannot prove them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There is a natural tendency to let doctrine sit in judgment of historical events. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Faith in doctrine easily and frequently distorts history. Difference betw military revolution and RMA? Murray and Knoxs Definitions Ã¢â¬ ¢ If you follow the arguments presented by Murray and Knox, you would define military revolutions as periods of dramatic change in the way violence is used to pursue policy by other means. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Military revolutions are caused by major upheavals in society, economics, politics, or diplomacy. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Military revolutions are massive in scope, and while they may not proceed quickly by todays frantic measurement of progress, nonetheless, they carry with them profound change. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Military institutionsÃ¢â¬âarmies, navies, and air forcesÃ¢â¬âfind themselves hard-pressed to keep up with changes that come with a military revolution. Ã¢â¬ ¢ And, afterwards, societies will not organize for, nor conduct war the same way as before. Ã¢â¬ ¢ RMAs tend to apply to military behavior rather than social, political, and economic behaviors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The difference between the two is important because of the scope in change that each brings about. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If you follow the definitions offered by Murray and Knox, you will view revolutions in military affairs as significant, but not as broad or sweeping in their effects on the battlefield. Military revolution definitions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Its defining feature is that it fundamentally changes the framework of war. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Military revolutions recast society and the state as well as military organizations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ uncontrollable, unpredictable, and unforeseeable Ã¢â¬ ¢ They [who experienced military revolutions] came to recognize the grim face of revolutionary change; they could rarely aspire to do more than hang on and adapt. The Napoleonic Revolution In another momentous bequest to the 19th century, and even to the 20th, Napoleon revolutionized the methods of warfare. Because his operations were bigger and more extensive than earlier ones, logistics became a more important team-mate of strategy. Putting into effect as an art the principles of warfare advocated by preceding military thinkers and field commanders, he forced other countries to be imitative as the only hope of success. One of historys minor ironies is that France abandoned conscription under the Bourbon restoration, at a time when other countries were adopting it so as to compete with the France of Napoleon. Ã¢â¬â Robert B. Holtman, The Napoleonic Revolution (Lippincott, 1967) The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the United Kingdom. The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. Starting in the later part of the 18th century there began a transition in parts of Great Britains previously manual labor and draft-animal Ã¢â¬â based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanization of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal, wider utilization of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world, a process that continues as industrialization. The impact of this change on society was enormous. The First World War World War I (abbreviated as WW-I, WWI, or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, the World War (prior to the outbreak of the Second World War), and the War to End All Wars, was a global military conflict which involved most of the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies of World War I centered around the Triple Entente and the Central Powers, centered around the Triple Alliance. More than 70 million military personnel were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. More than 15 million people were killed, making it one of the deadliest conflicts in history. During the conflict, the industrial and scientific capabilities of the main combatants were entirely devoted to the war effort. The assassination, on 28 June 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, is seen as the immediate trigger of the war, though long-term causes, such as imperialistic foreign policy, played a major role. The archdukes assassination at the hands of Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip resulted in demands against the Kingdom of Serbia. Several alliances that had been formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; with all having colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world. By the wars end in 1918, four major imperial powersÃ¢â¬âthe German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman EmpiresÃ¢â¬âhad been militarily and politically defeated, with the last two ceasing to exist as autonomous entities. The revolutionized Soviet Union emerged from the Russian Empire, while the map of central Europe was completely redrawn into numerous smaller states. The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war, the repercussions of Germanys defeat, and the Treaty of Versailles would eventually lead to the beginning of World War II in 1939. Ã¢â¬â Wikipedi Nuclear Weapons A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter; a modern thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than a thousand kilograms can produce an explosion comparable to the detonation of more than a billion kilograms of conventional high explosive. Thus, even single small nuclear devices no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire and radiation. Nuclear weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction, and their use and control has been a major focus of international relations policy since their debut. In the history of warfare, only two nuclear weapons have been detonated offensively, both near the end of World War II. The first was detonated on the morning of 6 August 1945, when the United States dropped a uranium gun-type device code-named Little Boy on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The second was detonated three days later when the United States dropped a plutonium implosion-type device code-named Fat Man on the city of Nagasaki, Japan. These bombings resulted in the immediate deaths of around 120,000 people (mostly civilians) from injuries sustained from the explosion and acute radiation sickness, and even more deaths from long-term effects of ionizing radiation. The use of these weapons was and remains controversial. Since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for testing purposes and demonstration purposes. A few states have possessed such weapons or are suspected of seeking them. The only countries known to have detonated nuclear weaponsÃ¢â¬âand that acknowledge possessing such weaponsÃ¢â¬âare (chronologically) the United States, the Soviet Union (succeeded as a nuclear power by Russia), the United Kingdom, France, the Peoples Republic of China, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Israel is also widely believed to possess nuclear weapons, though it does not acknowledge having them. Ã¢â¬â Wikipedia RMA- def Ã¢â¬Å"Revolutions in military affairs require the assembly of a complex mix of tactical, organizational, doctrinal, and technological innovations in order to implement a new conceptual approach to warfare or to a specialized sub-branch of warfare. Ã¢â¬ Examples of RMAÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦ Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. Combined arms doctrine contrasts with segregated arms where each military unit is composed of only one type of soldier or weapon system. Segregated arms is the traditional method of unit/force organization, employed to provide maximum unit cohesion and concentration of force in a given weapon or unit type. Though the lower-echelon units of a combined arms team may be of homogeneous types, a balanced mixture of such units are combined into an effective higher-echelon unit, whether formally in a table of organization or informally in an ad hoc solution to a battlefield problem. For example an armored division Ã¢â¬â the modern paragon of combined arms doctrine Ã¢â¬â consists of a mixture of infantry, tank, artillery, reconnaissance, and perhaps even helicopter units, all coordinated and directed by a unified command structure. Also, most modern military units can if the situation requires it call on yet more branches of the military, such as fighter or bomber aircraft or naval forces, to support their operations. The mixing of arms is sometimes pushed down below the level where homogeneity ordinarily vprevails, for example by temporarily attaching a tank company to an infantry battalion. Ã¢â¬â Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating an enemy nation-state by destroying its economic ability to wage war rather than destroying its land or naval forces. It is a systematically organized and executed attack from the air which can utilize strategic bombers, long- or medium-range missiles, or nuclear-armed fighter-bomber aircraft to attack targets deemed vital to an enemys war-making capacity. It differs from terror bombing in that the latter targets civilian populations, in an attempt either to bend a nations will to that of the attacker, such as the World War II bombing of Rotterdam, or to punish a nation for political actions, as in the 1941 bombing of Belgrade for treachery. Ã¢â¬â Wikipedia The US Navy has dominated aircraft carrier warfare since the 1920s. Conceived to provide scouting eyes for the fleet, the carrier evolved an attack capability that rivaled that of the battleships during the interwar period. Offensive tactics were developed during annual fleet problems by innovative admirals, notably Joseph Mason Reeves, and a small cadre of younger naval aviators led by John H. Towers. In World War II, the carrier became the major arbiter of American sea power, a role more or less perpetuated during and after the Cold War. US carrier forces have engaged in five principal roles and missions of varying priority according to operational objectives: (1) Fleet support, using scouting planes for reconnaissance and fighter planes as defensive interceptors; (2) Destruction of the enemy fleet, especially opposing carriers, with attack planes (bombers); (3) Protection of merchant shipping as defensive convoy escorts or offensively in hunter? killer groups, against submarines; (4) Destruction of enemy merchant shipping at sea or at anchor; and, (5) Projecting aerial firepower inland. The function of the latter objective has been twofold: supporting amphibious assaults with close air support of infantry over the beach, protective fighter cover against enemy planes, and interdiction of enemy transportation systems (bridges, roads, rail lines) in order to isolate the beachhead; and striking strategic targetsÃ¢â¬âairfields, army installations, port facilities, and industrial plants. Ã¢â¬â Answers. com Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and underwater warfare. The latter may be subdivided into submarine warfare and anti-submarine warfare as well as mine warfare and mine countermeasures. Each area comprises specialized platforms and strategies used to exploit tactical advantages unique and inherent to that area. Modern submarine warfare consists primarily of diesel and nuclear submarines using weapons (like torpedoes, missiles or nuclear weapons), as well as advanced sensing equipment, to attack other submarines, ships, or land targets. Submarines may also be used for reconnaissance and landing of special forces as well as deterrence. In some navies they may be used for task force screening. The effectiveness of submarine warfare partly depends on the anti-submarine warfare carried out in response. Ã¢â¬â Wikipedia Amphibious warfare is the use of naval firepower, logistics and strategy to project military power ashore. In previous eras it stood as the primary method of delivering troops to non-contiguous enemy-held terrain. In this modern era amphibious warfare persists in the form of commando insertion by fast patrol boats, zodiacs and mini-submersibles. In the modern era of warfare, an amphibious landing of infantry troops on a beachhead is the most complex of all military maneuvers. The undertaking requires an intricate coordination of numerous military specialties, including air power, naval gunfire, naval transport, logistical planning, specialized equipment, land warfare, tactics, and extensive training in the nuances of this maneuver for all personnel involved. Ã¢â¬â Wikipedia Signals intelligence (often contracted to SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether between people (i. e. , COMINT or communications intelligence) or between machines (i. e. , ELINT or electronic intelligence), or mixtures of the two. As sensitive information is often encrypted, signals intelligence often involves the use of cryptanalysis. However, traffic analysisÃ¢â¬âthe study of who is signaling whom and in what quantityÃ¢â¬âcan often produce valuable information, even when the messages themselves cannot be decrypted. As a means of collecting intelligence, signals intelligence is a subset of intelligence collection management, which, in turn, is a subset of intelligence cycle management. Ã¢â¬â Wikipedia Why are military revolutions like earthquakes? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Like forces of nature, military revolutions tend to defy mans attempts to control them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ They come from vast causes and lead to vast outcomes in every arena of human activity. Ã¢â¬ ¢ You will recall from your reading that Murray and Knox suggest that the best a military institution can do is to attempt to anticipate and adapt the forces of change that come with a military revolution. Murry and knox Explaining History Studies Ã¢â¬ ¢ You should be able to relate case studies with the concepts described in Murray and Knoxs introductory essay. Ã¢â¬ ¢ WWI had monumental impacts on economics, social structure, culture, and political systems across most of Western civilization (and quite a few places where Europeans had built empires in the Third World). Ã¢â¬ ¢ The military revolution of 1914 Ã¢â¬â 18 generated massive changes in the technology of warfare; and, in the interwar period that followed, the new weapons of war were refined, tested, improved, and integrated into new military organizations designed to make the most out of them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The primitive tank of 1916 led to the sophisticated fighting organizationÃ¢â¬âthe Panzer division. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The flimsy canvas and wood machines of the Western Front led to the creation of multiengine bomber groups capable of delivering munitions from one continent to the next, and so forth. 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s creation of the modern state Pre-shock RMAs: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Longbow Ã¢â¬ ¢ Edward IIIÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gunpowder Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fortress architecture Direct and Aftershocks: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dutch and Swedish tactical reforms Ã¢â¬ ¢ French tactical and organizational reforms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Naval revolution Ã¢â¬ ¢ BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s financial revolution French and Industrial revolution Pre-shock RMA: French military reforms (post Seven Years War) Direct and Aftershocks: Ã¢â¬ ¢ National economic and political mobilization Ã¢â¬ ¢ Napoleonic way of war Ã¢â¬ ¢ Financial and economic power based on industrialized power Ã¢â¬ ¢ Technological revolution of war (railroads, rifles, and steamboats) World War 1 Pre-shock RMA: Fisher Revolution (1905 Ã¢â¬â 14) Direct and Aftershocks: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Combined arms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Blitzkrieg Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strategic bombing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carrier warfare Ã¢â¬ ¢ Unrestricted submarine warfare Ã¢â¬ ¢ Amphibious warfare Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intelligence Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information warfare (1940 Ã¢â¬â 45) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stealth RMA Components Ã¢â¬ ¢ This question requires you to dig a little deeper into the definitions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recall earlier in this section that the authors wrote:Revolutions in military affairs require the assembly of a complex mix of tactical, organizational, doctrinal and technological innovations in order to implement a new conceptual approach to warfare or to a specialized sub-branch of warfare. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The significance here is that most people tend to think that RMA are exclusively driven by technology. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Murray and Knox definition forces you to think of the conceptual and institutional adaptations needed to make an RMA possible. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recall the way RMA encompassed more than just changes in the weapons used on the battlefield. Ã¢â¬ ¢ For example, the tank did not become the decisive weapon of the blitzkrieg RMA until it was integrated into a combined arms formation (the Panzer division) and guided by a doctrine that took advantage of the tanks speed and shock effect. According to Hundley, an RMA involves a paradigm shift in the nature and conduct of military operations: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Which either renders obsolete or irrelevant one or more core competencies of a dominant player Ã¢â¬ ¢ Or creates one or more new core competencies in some new dimension of warfare Ã¢â¬ ¢ Or both What are some notable characteristics of RMA? Rarely brought about by dominant players Gives an immediate advantage to the first player to exploit them Usually result from combinations rather than individual technologies The first to exploit is NOT always the first to invent. RMAs are NOT always technology-driven. Successful ones have three components: technology, doctrine, and organization More failed examples than successful ones May take a long time to develop RMAs are rarely started by the dominant player. They also consist of organizational, technical and doctrinal components. Revolution Fundamentally changes the framework of war Uncontrollable, unpredictable, and unforeseeable Violence is used to pursue policy Massive in scope Caused by major upheavals in society, economics, politics, or diplomacy. Massive in scope, and while they may not proceed quickly by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s frantic measurement of progress, they carry with them profound change. Military revolutions are broad or sweeping in their effects on the battlefield; RMAs may just be significant. Military revolutions also apply to all the social, political and economic aspects, rather than strictly the military ones as RMAs do. RMA Rarely brought about by dominant players Assembly of a complex mix of tactical, organizational, doctrinal, technological innovations Applied to military behavior rather than social, political, and economic behaviors. Significant but not broad or sweeping in their effects. RMAs just apply to the military aspect. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re significant, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a military revolutionÃ¢â¬â¢s broad, sweeping effects. Since RMAs have only military effects, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t apply to the political and social aspects of the Napoleonic Revolution or Industrial Revolution. Rarely brought about by dominant players Gives an immediate advantage to the first player to exploit them The first to exploit is not always the first to invent Successful ones have three components: technology, doctrine, and organization May take a long time to develop More failed examples than successful ones Negative Consequences (murry and knox) Ã¢â¬ ¢ The two authors found that DESERT STORM encouraged a tendency in the US military to micromanage military operations from the highest level (they suggested the spirit of McNamara was resurrected). Ã¢â¬ ¢ They believed DESERT STORM encouraged the Services to continue searching for all the multi-billion dollar, high-tech toys they could accumulate instead of thinking about what they really needed and how best to use their resources. Ã¢â¬ ¢ They believed the 100-hour victory led to the expectation of quick, near-bloodless victories. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Finally, they believed the technological wizardry displayed in the Gulf seemed to promise that the United States would not have to do hard strategic thinking. Warfare Styles Ã¢â¬ ¢ Parker argues that every culture develops its own style of warfare. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Western civilization developed their unique way of fighting. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Western styles significance is that it became the dominant style, essentially leading to the Wests dominant position. Western War Technology Ã¢â¬ ¢ The armed forces of the West have always placed heavy reliance on superior technology, usually to compensate for inferior numbers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ That is not to say that the West enjoyed universal technology superiority. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Until the advent of musketry volleys and field artillery in the early seventeenth century, the recurved bow used by horse archers all over Asia proved far more effective than any western weaponry, but, with few exceptions, the horse archers of Asia did not directly threaten the West and, when they did, the threat wasnt sustained. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Nor did the all the advanced technology originate in the West: many vital innovations, including the stirrup and gunpowder, came from eastern adversaries. Ã¢â¬â Parker 2 Discipline Ã¢â¬ ¢ Western military practice has always exalted discipline rather than kinship, religion or patriotism as the primary instrument that turns bands of men fighting as individuals into soldiers fighting as part of organized units. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The critical element of discipline I s the ability of a formation to stand fast in the face of the enemy, whether attacking or being attacked, without giving way to the natural impulses of fear and panic. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discipline proved particularly important for western armies because their wars were normally won by infantry. Withstanding a full cavalry charge without flinching required arduous training, strong unit cohesion, and superb self-control. Ã¢â¬â Parker 2, 3 Highly Aggressive Military Tradition Ã¢â¬ ¢ Aggression Ã¢â¬â the export of violence Ã¢â¬â played a central role in the rise of the West. Ã¢â¬ ¢ For most of the past 2,500 years, military and naval; superiority rather than better resources, great moral rectitude, irresistible commercial acumen or, until the nineteenth century, advanced economic organization under-pinned western expansion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ This military edge meant that the West seldom suffered successful invasion itself. None encompassed total destruction. Conversely, western forces, although numerically inferior, not only defeated the Persian and Carthaginian invaders but managed to extirpate the states that sent them. Ã¢â¬â Parker 10 Emphasis on Innovation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Normally, military technology is the first to be borrowed by every society, because the penalty for ailing to do so can be immediate and fatal; but the West seems to have been preternaturally receptive to new technology, whether from its own inventors or from outside. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Technological innovation, and the equally vital ability to respond to it, soon became an established feature of western warfare. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Since the Persian wars in the fifth century BC, few periods can be found during which the West proved unable to muster forces with a fighting potential superior to that of its immediate adversaries. Ã¢â¬â Parker 2 Unique System of War Finance Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Wests ability to mobilize money in support of its campaigns is the most overlooked aspect of its superiority. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Financial strength enabled the West to finance technological innovation, to pay soldiers enough to submit to discipline and to build armies and navies big and mobile enough to project power around the world. Ã¢â¬ ¢ After the introduction of gunpowder weapons and defenses, the cost of each war proved significantly higher than that of the last, while the cost of military hardware rose to such a degree that only a centralized state could afford to buy. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The financial burden of fighting may be spread over a wide social group or even over several generations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A capital-intensive military system, by contrast, requires the stockpiling of a wide panoply of weapons that, although extremely expensive, may so become outdated. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Its attraction, however, lay precisely in the combination of high initial cost with low maintenance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ An example is the Harlech castle, one of Edward Is magnificent fortifications in Wales, cost almost an entire years revenue to build, but in 1294 its garrison of on 37 soldiers defended it against attack. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Another example is the Manhattan Project which spent millions of dollars on the production of nuclear devices which, delivered on two August mornings in 1945 by just two airplanes, precipitated the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan and the millions of her troops still in arms all over southeast Asia. Ã¢â¬â Parker 6, 7 Why Imitating Western-Style Warfare Ã¢â¬ ¢ Western-style warfare comes as a package. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To adopt Western style warfare, countries outside the West have difficulty because the Western style of warfare is so inextricably tied to Western culture. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Countries also have to be able to mobilize resources in a way that is competitive with the West. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Military institutions tend to be conservative in outlook, and this feature frequently prevents them from adapting to the Western style of war. Ã¢â¬ ¢ As Geoffrey Parker points out, one country that proved able to adapt the Western way of war to its own culture was Japan. However, there are few other examples. is it hard to imitate western style warfare? According to Murray and Knox, what were the negative consequences of the US victory in DESERT STORM? The two authors find that DESERT STORM encouraged a tendency in the US military to micromanage military operations from the highest level (they suggest the spirit of McNamara was resurrected). They believe Operation DESERT STORM (ODS) encouraged the Services to continue searching for all the multi-billion dollar, high-tech toys they could accumulate instead of thinking about what they really needed and how best to use their resources. They believed the 100-hour victory led to the expectation of quick, near-bloodless victories. According to Geoffrey Parker, the Western way of war is the unique way of fighting that developed in Western civilization. Park The significance of the Western style is its dominance. It led to the WestÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance. er argues that every culture develops its own style of warfare. History shows that each culture develops its own version of warfare which is evident in our COE. The Western way of war has become the paradigm. It is based on five essential features: Technology, discipline, Highly aggressive military tradition, emph on innovation, unique system of war finance. Training and leadership can be considered generic to all cultures. The West really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have an edge on those aspects. Which event was more revolutionary? The 9/11 attacks against the Pentagon and World Trade Center or the shock and awe campaign against downtown Baghdad? Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Al Qaeda hijackers used existing technology to dramatically revise the US perception of national security. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By attacking and killing civilians wholesale, they demonstrated an unwillingness to follow traditionally held values and rules of engagement generally accepted by Western armies. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By contrast, the US bombing campaign against Iraq was a technological marvel intentionally designed to avoid civilian casualties. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The precision and visual impact of our strikes was impressive, but their impact remains uncertain. One might argue that neither attack was truly revolutionary. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Japanese kamikazes of 1944 Ã¢â¬â 45 demonstrated the ability to use human pilots to turn normal aircraft into precision-guided munitions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The joint direct attack munitions (JDAMs) of 2003 were just an evolutionary improvement of the laser-guided weaponry of the late Vietnam War. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Perhaps, more revolutionary, was Al Qaedas failed attempt to hit the White House, just as the US Militarys attempts to kill Saddam Hussein at the outset of the Iraq War. Military Revolution Definitions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Its defining feature is that it fundamentally changes the framework of war. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Military revolutions recast society and the state as well as military organizations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ uncontrollable, unpredictable, and unforeseeable Ã¢â¬ ¢ They [who experienced military revolutions] came to recognize the grim face of revolutionary change; they could rarely aspire to do more than hang on and adapt. Analysis of military revolutions helps by: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understanding the impact of revolution on the society, the state, and the military. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognizing an onset of a military revolution to better make decisions to assist military organizations to adapt to change. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Predicting future military requirements based on changes brought about through military revolutions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understanding what changes are possible based on the environment. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Summary Military Revolution Ã¢â¬ ¢ Occur during periods of dramatic change in the way violence is used to pursue policy by other means Ã¢â¬ ¢ Caused by major upheavals in society, economics, politics, or diplomacy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Are massive in scope Ã¢â¬ ¢ May not proceed quickly by todays standards Ã¢â¬ ¢ Produce profound changes Revolution in